Aisha RA born in Makkah 614 C.E or 9 years before Hijri. She is daughter of Abu Bakr Siddique RA the most beloved of companion of Rasulullah. Her mother was Umm Roman RA. She was grew in a honorable family that away from jahiliya tradition and Rasulullah already knew her very well during her grew.
After the year of sadness, Abu Bakar as suggested by Khawlaah (wife of Uthman RA) propose Aisha to Rasulullah. Khalid and Abdel noticed (2003) that Rasulullah PBUH married her after according to Allah command. Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim that Rasulullah saw her in his dream and told by an angel if she is his wife. The marriage is conducted in Shawal after the Battle of Badr and both lived in a small house which consisted a room beside the mosque. Aisha RA lived with Rasulullah for approximately nine years. Rasulullah often called her with “Humaira” or little reddish.
Aisha RA then become the most person who knew well everything that Rasulullah did in his (PBUH) private live particularly in the domestic life, inside the house. He knew very well how Rasulullah communicate and interact with her and also with other Rasulullah wives. He witness that Rasulullah keep himself busy serving his family until the time of prayer (Bukhari) . She involved in many Rasulullah events so latter on she will become important source hadith and important source for legal woman activities which allowed or forbidden during menstruation. She was the important of information source how a husband should be treat his wife and the maids mannerly just like Rasulullah PBUH.
As he lived with Rasulullah, she understand very well how Rasulullah performing ablution and prayer in very detail, about the characteristic of the prayer, what things the action during prayer. She knew what Rasulullah PBUH read during performing prayer and the duaa he invoked after praying. From her we know that an angel will not enter the house if there were a creature’s pictures and if Rasulullah forbade to put any picture in front of prayer mat because it can loosing the concentration. As she also went hajj / Pilgrimage with Rasulullah SAW, she told us the detail of what Rasulullah did during pilgrimage.
As she lived in a house beside the mosque, she also knew what Rasulullah did in mosque and also heard many of Rasulullah taught in the mosque. She know the condition of ahlus suffah. She knew the taraweh prayer that Rasulullah ever lead for some nights. She witnessed when Rasulullah receiving the revelation until he (PBUH) sweat in a cold night. She knew many of the asbab al-nuzul, the background of an ayah or surah was revealed particularly revelation related to a situation when she got accusations / fitnah by the Madinah hypocrites. She narrated many hadiths about the muamalat (trading, laboring, renting, loans, slavery) as people come to Rasulullah in his house or in the mosque.
According to Bilal Philips, Aisha RA involved in efforts to criticize hadith after Rasulullah died as well as Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali and Ibn Umar did. As example the hadith of the removal of the knowledge to his nephew – Urwah – which is take a year to convince her if the hadith must be correct. She has different opinion with other companions in several cases such as if Rasulullah was urinated standing or not as she never found it during her life with Rasulullah PBUH.
Instead narrating from Rasulullah directly, Aisha RA also narrating form other companions. Akram Nadwi (2007) mentioned that instead narrating from Rasulullah PBUH, Aisha RA also narrated the hadith from his father – Abu Bakr -, Umar ibn Khattab, Fatimah, Hamzah ibn Amr, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas and Jumadah bint Wahb (Nadwi 108). And the companions who narratd from her are : her father – Abu Bakr –, Umar ibn Khattab, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Musa Al-Ashari, Abdullah ibn Abbas, Rabiah ibn Amr, Saib ibn Yazin, Amr ibn Zayd, Abdullah ibn Amir, Abdullah ibn Harith.
Aisha RA was the top four of the sahaba who narrated hadith, after Aboo Hurayrah (5374), Ibn ‘Umar (2630), and Anas ibn Maalik (2286). Aisha narrated 2,210 hadits which 297 of those hadits are in the Sahih Bukhari and Muslim. Total of her hadith in the Six Books is 2,081 compared to of Abu Hurayrah 3,370 hadiths. (Nadwi 248) Imam Ahmad in his musnad have 2405 hadith that narrate by Aisha RA (Nadwi, 2007)
Aisha (r.a.) applied the method of teaching for the strangers and whom are not in the circle of Maharim (the family members whom Islam permits to see one another) by using hijab or curtain, and she will sit behind the curtain and she will attract student’s attention by clapping on her own hands, as narrated by Masrroq (Muhsin, 2013)
Akram Nadwi in his book (2007) mentioned that some of the narrations are categorized as a golden chain by citting Yahya ibn Ma’ieen (d. 233) that said: ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Umar from Qasim from ‘Aishah is a solid chain of narration. Several chains that begin with ‘Aishah are consistently described as among the best. He also citting from Al-Khatib al Baghdadi reports that Waki’ ibn al-Jarrah (d. 197) was once asked to indicate his preference among three of them: (1) Hisham ibn ‘Urwah from his father ‘Urwah from ‘Aishah; (2) Aflah ibn Humayd from al-Qasim from ‘Aishah; (3) Sufyan from Mansur from Ibrahim from al-Aswad from ‘Aishah.
Aisha RA was an educator for every moslem at her time. Aisha RA taught the hadith in her own house. And in Basra he taught in the house of Abdullah bin Khalaf as a guest of the Safiyah his grand daughter (Nadwi, 2007). Muhsin (2013) consider that the room of Aisha RA was the first Islamic academy in the world after Masjid Nabawi. After the famous Camel Battle, Aisha RA spending much time educate people by narrating Hadith, issuing fatawa and answering queries. Muhsin citing from Sayyid Sulaiman Nadwi that says “At the annual pilgrimage her tent used to be pitched between mount Hira and Thabir. People of various nationalities would hasten in large number to hear her sermons and lectures and would seek clarifications and explanations. She would encourage people to ask questions. Her pupils used to revere her and pay greatest attention to what she said”.
Aisha RA was the youngest wife among Rasulullah pbuh wives. Aisha RA accompany Rasulullah PBUH much time compared to the other wives as she get extra night given by Umm Salamah. Her marriage with Rasulullah since she very young give an advantage that he almost remember things that happen during the life with Rasulullah PBUH. At that ages ( 9 to 20 years old) is the golden time for human to learn, to criticize to anything and to raising question. He have about 45 years to share what she knew about Rasulullah, to teach and answer people question and also to be a jurist or giving fatwas.Ata Abu Rabah described “Aisha (r.a.) was the most intelligent, scholarly person and the one who had the best thoughts and opinions among the people (Muhsin, 2013)
She lived until the age of 66 when she died in her home on Tuesday night 17th Ramadan 57 AH (Khalid and Abdel, 1957). She was buried in the graveyard Baqi’. Abu Hurairah led the funeral prayers. Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr Siddique and her uncle Abdullah bin Abdur- Rahman bin Abu Bakr Siddique placed her gently into her grave. (Ghadanfar, 2001)
Dwi Pamiluto Nugroho, July 1st 2016
- Khalid, Khalid Muhammad, and Dr Abdel-Hamid Eliwa. “Men and Women Around the Messenger, trans.” Sheikh Muhammad Mustafa Gemeiah. Dar al-Manarah, Egypt (2003).
- Nadwi, Mohammad Akram. “Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars in Islam.” London and Oxford: Interface Publications (2007).
- Muhsin, Sayyed Mohamed. “Women, Education And Empowerment: An Inclusive Model From The Life Of Aisha (RA).”
- Philips, Bilal. “Usool Al-Hadeeth. The Methodology of Hadith Evaluation”. International Islamic Publishing House
- Ghadanfar, Mahmood Ahmad. Great Women of Islam. Darussalam Publishers, 2001.