Why did Allah SWT allow trade and prohibit riba (interest) ?

by Dwi P. Nugroho, 5th July 2017

Allah created Human as a social being. Allah creates Eve since Adam can not live alone and he need a friends or partners to live. No one can do everything from planting rice, vegetables, fruits to fulfill his needs. Human can not build their house except live in caves. Human can not protect their self from robberies thieves etc. They need to join and interact with others to get their need by trading or barter and by hiring others to do things that they can not handle.

A community will sustain as long it members live in harmony and not conflicting each other. Every community’s member should put their effort to sustain the community by making others enjoy to living with them. Community will appoint a leader to lead the community and becomes a judge to solve disputes among them. Set of rules will be used to justify which activities are allowed and which are not. A leader also appointed to prevent other oppress others in the community

It is natural if anyone want to be rich and to enjoy good and luxuries things and they need more money to able to to that. But sometimes this temptation prompting greedy. There will be people who want more money but with less effort. They will find easiest and shortest way to increase their wealth even with unfair stealing, robbing, cheating, corrupting and else.

But in some condition, those unfair activities are considered legal/ normal in a community depends on the law in the community it self. If the written law said it is allowed (example : to takes small item from others) so that activities are legal to be practiced such as the bank loan with interest and alcohol trading.

Islamic community established based on the Islamic principles. The communities’ values are Islamic values and the communities’ law are Islamic laws. One of the Islamic value and thus an Islamic law are prohibition of the Riba (interest).

Literally riba is increase or growth (ziyadah). Allah SWT said in Surah Rum (30):39 “Whatever you pay as interest so that it may increase (li yarbu) the wealth of people does not increase (fa la yarbu) in the sight of Allah”.

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Dalil Wajibnya Khilafah di AlQuran

KETIKA ORANG PINTAR MENDADAK AWAM ..

Kalau orang awam ditanya “khilafah dalilnya apa ?“, maka yang  mereka bayangkan adalah mereka harus menunjukkan cuplikan ayat/hadits yang  langsung mengandung kata khilafah. Padahal didalam ilmu ushul fiqih, yang  namanya dilalah (petunjuk) yang bisa dijadikan dalil (bukti) atau hujah (argumen) itu tidak harus apa yang  tertulis persis dengan apa yang diminta atau ditanyakan. Dan sudah mestinya orang pintar tidak bersikap seperti orang awam.

Misalnya

  • Ketika saya (warga kota) pergi ke kampung X di pelosok desa Jawa Timur dan bertanya : “apakah disini ada Mushola Al-Ikhlas?” Maka bisa jadi sebagian warga akan mengatakan ada namun akan ada juga yang mengatakan tidak ada sebab istilah Mushola memang jarang ditemukan. Yang umum diketahui di daerah itu adalah Langgar untuk menyebut tempat yang saya sebut sebagai mushola.
  • Kemudian ketika saya mencari pak Ali Mukti di alamat XYZ, warga di kampung tersebut tidak tahu sama sekali nama tersebut. Namun setelah saya sebutkan ciri-ciri semisal usia dan tingginya serta asal desanya, warga kampung tersebut baru tahu kalau yang saya maksud adalah Mbah Herman karena ternyata nama H. Ali Mukti di KTPnya, H-nya bukan Haji tapi Herman.

Karena itu pemahaman dan penjelasan makna bahasa baik tekstual maupun kontekstual sangat diperlukan agar antar dua belah pihak nyambung dengan apa yang dimaksud oleh lawan bicara .

Kembali ke masalah dilalah (petunjuk text) sebagai landasan utama berdalil (bukti argumentasi). Yang pertama harus diketahui adalah bahwa istilah dilalah (petunjuk) itu didefiniskan sebagai memahami sesuatu dari sesuatu yang lain (fahmu amrin min amrin). Para ulama ushul fiqih mengkategorisasikan dilalah dengan bermacam-macam kategorisasi :

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